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Critical Minerals in Wyoming




A critical mineral has been defined as:
  • A non-fuel mineral or mineral material essential to the economic and national security of the United States
  • The supply chain of which is vulnerable to disruption
  • That serves an essential function in the manufacturing of a product, the absence of which would have significant consequences for our economy or our national security
Critical Minerals Report
Periodic table


In 2018, the U.S. Department of the Interior finalized a list of 35 critical minerals using this definition. Many of these are actually individual elements. Of the 35, six were determined to have high potential in Wyoming: helium, platinum group elements, rare earth elements, titanium, uranium, and vanadium. Many chemical analyses of geologic samples from across Wyoming are available as part of the WSGS online Mines and Minerals Map, a useful resource for viewing a wide variety of elemental and mineral data. Additional geochemical analyses can be found in the appendix of A Comprehensive Report on Rare Earth Elements in Wyoming, which includes many more analyses than just rare earth elements.




Periodic table with critical elements identified

Critical Minerals Summary Report   

Critical Minerals of Highest Potential in Wyoming

Helium tab

Helium (He):

Current helium production in Wyoming is solely from the LaBarge oil and natural gas field. This Grade-A helium is collected at and sold from the Shute Creek Processing Plant. In 1995, the WSGS estimated greater than 600 billion cubic feet of original helium resources in Wyoming, with the bulk of the resource in the LaBarge, Riley Ridge, and Church Buttes fields and concentrations generally less than 0.3 percent of the total natural gas stream. The Wyoming Geological Association published Helium Resources of Wyoming addressing Wyoming's helium resources. Information on helium as a by-product in Wyoming can be found in Wyoming’s Oil and Gas Industry in the 1980s: A Time of Change. Helium occurrences are noted in other natural gas fields throughout Wyoming, generally associated with sour gas production from reservoirs in Paleozoic rocks with concentrations less than 0.1 percent. The USGS is conducting a large-scale study on national helium resources (Section 16 of Public Law 113-40).




Lake Owen mafic complex

Platinum group metals/elements (PGEs):

Several WSGS reports, including Geology and Occurrence of Critical Strategic Metals (Chromium, Cobalt, Manganese, and Platinum) in Wyoming; The Geology of Wyoming’s Precious Metal Lode and Placer Deposits; and Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum, and Associated Metal Deposits of Wyoming address the six platinum group metals/elements: platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) iridium (Ir), osmium (Os), rhodium (Rh), and ruthenium (Ru). The New Rambler Mine in the Medicine Bow Mountains produced two of these elements, 170–910 ounces of platinum and 451–16,870 ounces of palladium, prior to 1918. Exploration for PGEs in the Medicine Bow Mountains continued in the 1980s and early 2000s. Potential exists for PGEs in copper mineralization associated with mafic complexes in the Medicine Bow Mountains and the Sierra Madre.



euxenite

Rare earth elements (REE):

Rare earth elements, or REE, are a group of metallic elements with similar chemical and physical properties, primarily in the lanthanide series of the periodic table of elements. The WSGS investigated REE in Wyoming and the published results can be found in Rare Earth Elements in Wyoming and A Comprehensive Report on Rare Earth Elements in Wyoming. The Bear Lodge REE deposit near Sundance is one of the largest in the United States and is one of the best europium deposits in the world. It hosts a measured and indicated resource of 18 million tons, averaging 3.05 percent rare earth oxides at 1.5 percent cutoff grade (1,099 million pounds of total rare earth oxides). As such, its potential for development and economic growth for Wyoming is significant. Other small REE occurrences are found within the state.

More information is available on the WSGS REE webpage.


Titaniferous magnetite

Titanium (Ti):

Iron and some associated titanium in Wyoming was addressed by the WSGS in 2015, findings can be found in Iron Resources in Wyoming. Titanium associated with magnetite (Ti-magnetite) is found in significant amounts in the Laramie Mountains. Development of this resource has been prevented in the past due to problems with iron smelting technnologies, but advances in modern processing techniques have the potential to make this a viable source of titanium. Ti-magnetite in the Iron Mountain area is reported to contain 13.75–30.84 percent titanium dioxide (TiO2). Heavy black sands in the Mesaverde Formation can contain up to 28.5 percent TiO2. WSGS publications on titanium include Titaniferous Black Sandstone Deposits of Wyoming and Strategic Mineral Resources in Wyoming—Titanium.



Uranium tab

Uranium (U):

Since the early 1950s, more than 230 million pounds of U3O8 ("yellowcake") have been produced in the state. Uranium ore most often occurs as roll fronts in Cenozoic basin-fill deposits. The U.S. Energy Information Administration estimates Wyoming holds reserves in excess of 105 million pounds of U3O8. The WSGS has published numerous reports on uranium.

More information is available on the WSGS Uranium webpage.






Vandium tab

Vanadium (V):

In Wyoming, vanadium was produced historically as a by-product of uranium production, primarily from surface pit mining operations. Currently, all uranium-mining operations employ in-situ recovery (ISR) processes with no accompanying vanadium production. Vanadium could again be produced in Wyoming if uranium-mining operations revert to surface pit mines or if methods are developed to recover vanadium through ISR. Vanadium is also known to occur in some heavy oils; this type of occurrence in Wyoming remains unexplored. Additionally, the USGS conducted multiple investigations into vanadium-bearing beds in the Phosphoria Formation in western Wyoming, estimating 45 million tons of indicated reserves with vanadium concentrations 0.7–1.6 percent V2O5. Further information can be found in the USGS publication Vanadium Deposits in the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation, Afton Area, Lincoln County, Western Wyoming. Mining operations in the 1970s extracted vanadium from this region, in addition to selenium, uranium, phosphate, and molybdenum.




Other Critical Minerals

Aluminum tab

Aluminum (Al):

During WWII, an attempt was made to extract aluminum from anorthosite in the Laramie Mountains. The anorthosite contains as much as 27–30 percent alumina, with typical analyses showing 25.87 percent Al2O3. An extraction process was developed by the Monolith Portland Midwest Co., and a plant was constructed near Laramie. However, there was no production due to the large amount of energy required, the inefficiency of the process, and renewed availability of aluminum from foreign bauxite deposits. Aluminum extraction efforts continued into the 1950s. Other known aluminum-rich rocks in Wyoming are of limited extent and have no known potential for commercial aluminum extraction.





Antimony tab

Antimony (Sb):

Antimony is found in a wide variety of environments across Wyoming ranging from metal deposits to pegmatites, heavy mineral placers, paleoplacers, and concretions. These occurrences overlap the host environments for arsenic and cesium. Any potential for recovery of antimony in Wyoming appears to be in association with other metals, particularly with silver, lead, and zinc. Antimony associated with silver, copper, lead, and zinc was reported at 10,000 ppm along the Mullen Creek-Nash Fork Shear Zone in the Medicine Bow Mountains. In general, most deposits are interpreted to be small with little potential for mining as an individual commodity, but may be productively mined in association with other metals.





Arsenic tab

Arsenic (As):

Arsenic occurs in significant concentrations in a variety of environments in Wyoming. Large concentrations (about 1,500 to greater than 10,000 ppm) occur along the north side of the Mullen Creek layered mafic complex in the Medicine Bow Mountains in association with silver, copper, lead, and zinc mineralization. Arsenic could potentially be produced as a by-product of processing these metals from the Medicine Bow Mountains, several other Precambrian-cored mountain ranges, and the Great Divide, Wind River, and Bighorn basins, where analyses show greater than 250 ppm arsenic concentrations.





Blue barite

Barite (barium, Ba):

Barite in Wyoming is reported in association with sulfide metal deposits in the cores of several mountain ranges and in a variety of sedimentary and metamorphic environments where it has been mobilized and redeposited. Known occurrences appear to be small, but further evaluation would be necessary in the case of critical need.







Beryl crystal

Beryllium (Be):

The only known beryllium occurrences in Wyoming are beryl-hosting pegmatites in several mountain ranges. Between 1928 and 1940, small quantities of beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18) and tantalite (Fe, Mn)(Ta, Nb)2O6 were mined from the Whippet No. 1 and No. 8 claims in the Copper Mountain district of the Owl Creek Mountains. Chemical analyses for beryllium are less common than for other elements. Beryllium concentrations in a variety of geologic samples from around Wyoming can be found in the appendix of A Comprehensive Report on Rare Earth Elements in Wyoming. The potential for beryllium associated with other rock types in Wyoming requires further investigation.




Bismuth tab

Bismuth (Bi):

Bismuth is found in concentrations greater than 250 ppm in the southern Medicine Bow Mountains, southern Laramie Mountains, and the South Pass area. Lower concentrations are found in the Sierra Madre, northern Laramie, Granite, Owl Creek, and Absaroka mountains. All occurrences are either associated with other metal deposits or with pegmatites. While most bismuth is commonly a secondary product from lead refining, a significant amount is also recovered from other metal ores. Potential for bismuth production in Wyoming appears to be limited to that of a by-product from copper or precious metal ores.






Cesium tab

Cesium (Cs):

Cesium occurs in trace amounts in a variety of environments in Wyoming, with a maximum documented concentration of 210 ppm in a pegmatite in the northern Granite Mountains. Since cesium mining occurs on a very small scale and is very selective; small minable deposits may be a possibility in some pegmatites.







Chromium (Cr):
Paleo placer

Within the southern Medicine Bow Mountains, chromium concentrations up to 5,000 ppm are associated with shear zones and alterations along the northern edge of the Mullen Creek layered mafic complex. Slightly lower amounts of chromium in the Medicine Bow Mountains are associated with some shear zones, copper deposits, the Lake Owen layered mafic complex, and one vermiculite deposit. These chromium occurrences, partly due to their co-occurrence with other metals (Ag, Au, Cu, Ni, and PGEs), have some potential for mining in Wyoming. Other chromium occurrences are associated with alteration zones in the Granite Mountains. Ultramafic schists, serpentinites, and related rocks host chromium in the Granite, Seminoe, and Laramie mountains, and the Wind River Mountains near South Pass. Cretaceous paleoplacer black sandstones, primarily in the Mesaverde Formation and smaller deposits in the Jurassic Stump Formation, contain chromium up to 2,270 ppm. These paleoplacers, if mined, would be multi-element deposits with accompanying Ti-oxides, zircon, monazite, rutile, rare earth elements, and others. Chromium is addressed in some WSGS publications including Geology and Occurrence of Critical Strategic Metals (Chromium, Cobalt, Manganese, and Platinum) in Wyoming; The Geology of Wyoming’s Precious Metal Lode and Placer Deposits; Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum, and Associated Metal Deposits of Wyoming; Rare Earth Elements In Wyoming, and A Comprehensive Report on Rare Earth Elements in Wyoming.

Cobalt tab

Cobalt (Co):

Cobalt concentrations, associated with copper mineralization and mafic complexes in the Medicine Bow Mountains and the Sierra Madre, are reported as high as 1,000 ppm. Cobalt also occurs in a silver prospect in the Granite Mountains, small copper deposits in the Ferris Mountains with one reported concentration of 3,000 ppm, and in trace amounts in the Laramie Mountains. Cobalt is addressed in some WSGS publications including Geology and Occurrence of Critical Strategic Metals (Chromium, Cobalt, Manganese, and Platinum) in Wyoming, The Geology of Wyoming’s Precious Metal Lode and Placer Deposits; Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum, and Associated Metal Deposits of Wyoming; Rare Earth Elements In Wyoming; and A Comprehensive Report on Rare Earth Elements in Wyoming which includes chemical analyses of a variety of geologic samples from around Wyoming. Cobalt recovery potential in Wyoming is greatest in association with other metals.



Fluorine tab

Fluorspar or fluorite (fluorine, F):

Wyoming hosts potentially mineable deposits of fluorite in Crook County, where fluorite is concentrated in lenses and mineralized zones within Mississippian limestone. Smaller occurrences have been reported in Laramie, Carbon, Fremont, and Natrona counties. The WSGS reports that in 1944, mining operations in Wyoming shipped 19 short tons of fluorite. Fluorine can also be a significant component of phosphate rock, common in western Wyoming.







Gallium tab

Gallium (Ga):

Gallium is most commonly extracted as a secondary product from zinc and aluminum deposits. This status as a by-product of other ore production means only minor attention has been paid to possible sources of gallium in Wyoming. Limited analyses show gallium occurs as a trace element in a variety of rocks throughout Wyoming, but no samples contain enriched concentrations. Wyoming has no known mineable deposits of gallium.







Germanium tab

Germanium (Ge):

Germanium occurs in isolated locations throughout Wyoming, but mineable quantities have not been identified. It is most commonly recovered as a secondary product from polymetallic deposits, including massive sulfides, copper-lead-zinc, and zinc-lead deposits, as well as from coal. The WSGS analyzed a handful of samples for germanium, however, only trace amounts were reported.






Carbon tab

Graphite (natural) (carbon, C):

Most graphite in Wyoming occurs in Precambrian metamorphic rocks as graphitic schists in relatively thin (1–2 feet thick) veins or as discontinuous lenses containing 20–50 percent graphite, although many contain less than 20%. A minor amount of graphite was mined in 1926, suggesting additional future mineable potential. Information can be found in the WGSS publication Graphite in Wyoming.

Also see Graphite: Western States Mining and Milling Co., , Vaughn Graphite, Rabbit Creek Graphite, Geologic Map of the Area Adjacent to the Rabbit Creek Graphite Mine, and Preliminary Report on the Rabbit Creek Graphite Deposit, Platte County, Wyoming.



Hafnium tab

Hafnium (Hf):

Hafnium and zirconium (Zr) are similar physically and chemically and are thus almost always found together, primarily in the minerals zircon (ZrSiO4) and baddelyite (ZrO2). The Zr:Hf ratio in zircon is about 50:1. The primary source for zircon and baddelyite are paleo-beach placers. Black-sand paleoplacers, primarily in the Mesaverde Formation (also in several other formations), include as much as 16 percent hafnium-containing zircon. No hafnium or zirconium production has been reported in Wyoming.






Indium tab

Indium (In):

The majority of indium is produced as a by-product of zinc processing; minimal exploration and production occurs where indium is the primary focus. Indium is commonly extracted from volcanogenic massive sulfides, sedimentary exhalative deposits, and polymetallic tin deposits. Indium is associated with some copper deposits in the Sierra Madre, the Granite Mountains, and in the Ferris Mountains. Similar to other critical elements, it has little potential for mining as an individual commodity, but it may have potential to be mined in association with other metals.






Lepidolite

Lithium (Li):

Wyoming hosts minor occurrences of lithium. More information can be found in the 2015 report on lithium resources. A review of more than 26,000 samples of various geomaterials in Wyoming showed favorable concentrations only in isolated, small, pegmatitic occurrences.







Magnesium tab

Magnesium (Mg):

Magnesium is produced from seawater, lake brines, dolomite, brucite, magnesite, and olivine. The WSGS reported in Epsomite (Magnesium Sulfate) in Wyoming that epsomite and dolomite deposits had the highest potential for magnesium extraction in Wyoming, however, the resources have not been fully quantified. Small-scale production of epsomite from lake beds in Albany and Carbon counties was reported in the early 1900s. Magnesium has not been produced from Wyoming dolostones despite the abundance of this rock type throughout the state.






Psilomelane

Manganese (Mn):

Manganese ores occur most commonly as supergene or marine sedimentary deposits. In Wyoming, manganese-rich alteration zones are found within a variety of host rocks. Although there are no known manganese reserves in the state, production of manganese has occurred in the past. In the early half of the 1900s, WSGS records indicate more than 250 tons were extracted from Wyoming. Manganese prospects have been recorded in Albany, Carbon, Crook, Fremont, Johnson, Natrona, Washakie, and Weston counties. WSGS and U.S. Bureau of Mines analyses from a few of these prospects reveal manganese concentrations ranging from 13 percent to 50 percent. Manganese is addressed in Geology and Occurrence of Critical Strategic Metals (Chromium, Cobalt, Manganese, And Platinum) in Wyoming.


Nickel tab

Nickel (Ni):

Wyoming has no known commercial nickel deposits. Nickel in Wyoming typically occurs in small amounts associated with other metals. Concentrations up to 3,000 ppm occur along the north side of the Mullen Creek layered mafic complex in the Medicine Bow Mountains in association with silver, copper, lead, and zinc mineralization. Similar concentrations are associated with alteration zones in the Granite Mountains, and lesser amounts occur in some mafic dikes across the state. Nickel is addressed directly or indirectly in some WSGS publications including The Geology of Wyoming’s Precious Metal Lode and Placer Deposits; Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum, and Associated Metal Deposits of Wyoming; Rare Earth Elements in Wyoming; and A Comprehensive Report on Rare Earth Elements in Wyoming. Further investigation is required to fully understand nickel occurrences in Wyoming.




Niobium tab

Niobium (Nb):

Niobium occurs most commonly within alkaline and carbonate igneous systems, and is often associated with tantalum as columbite-tantalite (columbite is the niobium-rich endmember). The WSGS estimates 325 pounds of columbite-tantalite were produced from tin-bearing pegmatites and beryl-rich pegmatites in Wyoming. Prospects have been identified in Albany and Fremont counties, and occurrences of columbite-tantalite have been reported from Albany, Converse, Crook, and Goshen counties. Niobium is addressed in Columbium (Niobium) and Tantalum in Wyoming, and chemical analyses of a variety of geologic samples from around Wyoming can be found in the appendix of A Comprehensive Report on Rare Earth Elements in Wyoming.







Potash (potassium-rich salts; KCl, K2CO3, and others):

The 1986 WSGS report Potash Resources of Wyoming identifies potential potash locations in the potassium-rich volcanic rocks of the Leucite Hills in Sweetwater County as well as potash-bearing evaporites in the subsurface in Laramie, Goshen, and Platte counties. Minor historic mining occurred in the Leucite Hills area, with resultant KCl produced from a plant in Green River. The potential for potash mining/recovery exists in Wyoming, but the resource volume is low and untested, specifically for the case of subsurface evaporites.

Rhenium tab

Rhenium (Re):

Rhenium occurs in porphyry copper deposits, as an impurity in molybdenum, and is recovered almost exclusively as a by-product of molybdenum processing. Copper deposits are found throughout Wyoming, especially in the Sierra Madre, the Absaroka and Laramie mountains, and the Copper Mountain district of central Wyoming. Molybdenum occurs in association with most of these deposits, some with minor historical production. WSGS sampling yielded rhenium concentrations less than 0.2 ppm, while the USGS suggests current economic rhenium concentrations at 100–3,000 ppm. Rhenium recovery potential in Wyoming is somewhat unknown but is projected to be low.





Rubidium tab

Rubidium (Rb):

Rubidium occurs in favorable concentrations, up to 2,960 ppm, in relatively small, isolated, pegmatites in Wyoming Mountain ranges. Due to its tendency to substitute for other elements such as cesium and lithium, it is produced primarily as a byproduct of cesium, lithium, and strontium mining operations. Rubidium is not mined in the United States; mineable potential in Wyoming remains unstudied.







Scandium tab

Scandium (Sc):

Often considered a rare earth element, scandium is not part of the lanthanide series but occurs with the lanthanides in nature, and was investigated in Rare Earth Elements In Wyoming, and A Comprehensive Report on Rare Earth Elements in Wyoming. Sampling as part of those studies yielded isolated occurrences of elevated scandium throughout the state with no samples greater than five times natural crustal abundance.







Strontium tab

Strontium (Sr):

Strontium has not been mined in the United States since 1959. It is principally recovered as celestine (SrSO4) and strontianite (SrCO3). These minerals are most commonly found filling voids and fractures in limestone and other sedimentary rocks. Although rare, a few isolated occurrences have been documented in Wyoming near Glenrock and west of Casper. The mineable potential of strontium in Wyoming is unknown.







Tantalum tab

Tantalum (Ta):

Tantalum is primarily extracted from the mineral tantalite, which occurs within granite and pegmatite. Tantalite is often associated with niobium-bearing columbite. The WSGS estimates 325 pounds of columbite-tantalite were produced from tin-bearing pegmatites and beryl-rich pegmatites in Wyoming, although further details are lacking. In 1942, the WSGS reported a beryl-pegmatite in Fremont County containing an estimated 2–3 tons of tantalum. Tantalum-bearing minerals were also reported in Precambrian mafic and ultramafic dikes in the Bighorn Mountains. Tantalum is addressed in Columbium (Niobium) and Tantalum in Wyoming and Tantalum-Bearing Mafic Dikes in The Northern Bighorn Mountains, Sheridan and Big Horn Counties, Wyoming.





Tellurium tab

Tellurium (Te):

Tellurium is a minor constituent in base metal ores and is produced mostly as a by-product of copper and lead production. It also forms compounds with gold. Minor occurrences are known to be associated with copper and gold mining operations in Wyoming, but the element has not been mined in the state. Tellurium is addressed in some WSGS publications including The Geology of Wyoming’s Precious Metal Lode and Placer Deposits; Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum, and Associated Metal Deposits of Wyoming; Rare Earth Elements In Wyoming; and A Comprehensive Report on Rare Earth Elements in Wyoming. Future mineable potential is unknown.





Tin tab

Tin (Sn):

Known tin occurrences in Wyoming are associated with pegmatites, copper-lead-zinc mineralization, and some paleoplacers and modern placers. Some pegmatites and veins in the Black Hills are tin bearing and are accompanied by minor cassiterite placers. Additional information can be found in The Geology of Wyoming’s Precious Metal Lode and Placer Deposits, and Copper, Lead, Zinc, Molybdenum, and Associated Metal Deposits of Wyoming. Analysis of a pegmatite sample from Black Mountain, in the Granite Mountains, showed 283 ppm Sn, and a sample from the Babbs mine in the Ferris Mountains showed 330 ppm; additional information can be found in Rare Earth Elements in Wyoming and A Comprehensive Report on Rare Earth Elements in Wyoming. Although no mineable tin deposits are known in Wyoming, slightly elevated tin concentrations are found in pegmatites and associated with metals deposits in the southern Laramie Mountains, the southern Medicine Bow Mountains, the South Pass area, and the Sierra Madre. In addition, paleoplacers in the Mesaverde Formation in several areas of the state host minor amounts of tin. Titaniferous Black Sandstone Deposits of Wyoming contains further details.


Tungsten tab

Tungsten (W):

In Wyoming, tungsten occurs primarily in scheelite associated with quartz veins and pegmatites hosted within Precambrian metamorphic rocks. WSGS reports indicate a small but unknown amount of tungsten ore has been produced and shipped from Wyoming pegmatites. Tungsten is also associated with some copper deposits and alteration zones in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks across the state. Paleoplacers in the Mesaverde Formation, the Frontier Formation, and the Flathead Sandstone host minor amounts of tungsten. Samples from a variety of geologic environments around Wyoming, analyzed in conjunction with studies of rare earth elements, showed tungsten in excess of 5,000 ppm in both the southern Laramie Mountains and in the South Pass area. Additional information can be found in Rare Earth Elements in Wyoming and A Comprehensive Report on Rare Earth Elements in Wyoming. Tungsten prospects have been reported in Converse, Fremont, and Washakie counties, with additional occurrences in Albany, Crook, Fremont, Sheridan, and Teton counties. Analyses of samples from some of these prospects in the 1940's and 1950's showed significant tungsten-trioxide (WO3) concentrations ranging from <1 percent to 4.7 percent, site descriptions indicate limited overall size for the deposits.

Zirconium tab

Zirconium (Zr):

Hafnium (Hf) and zirconium are similar physically and chemically and are thus almost always found together, primarily in the minerals zircon (ZrSiO4) and baddelyite (ZrO2). The Zr:Hf ratio in zircon is about 50:1. The primary source for zircon and baddelyite are paleo-beach placers. Black-sand paleoplacers, primarily in the Mesaverde Formation, include as much as 16 percent hafnium-containing zircon. Additional information can be found in Titaniferous Black Sandstone Deposits of Wyoming, Rare Earth Elements In Wyoming, A Comprehensive Report on Rare Earth Elements in Wyoming, and Iron Resources in Wyoming. No hafnium or zirconium production has been reported in Wyoming.







WSGS Publications Related to Critical Minerals

Carnes, J.D., 2015, Phosphate rock in Wyoming: Wyoming State Geological Survey Report of Investigations 68, 34 p.

Gregory, R.W., 2016, Uranium—Geology and applications: Wyoming State Geological Survey Public Information Circular 46, 26 p.

Gregory, R.W., Carnes, J.D., and Bagdonas, D.A., 2016, Zeolite resources in Wyoming: Wyoming State Geological Survey Report of Investigations 72, 65 p.

Harris, R.E., 1987, Tantalum-bearing mafic dikes in the northern Bighorn Mountains, Sheridan and Big Horn counties, Wyoming: The Geological Survey of Wyoming [Wyoming State Geological Survey] Mineral Report 87-3, 17 p.

Harris, R.E., 1987, Epsomite (magnesium sulfate) in Wyoming: Geological Survey of Wyoming [Wyoming State Geological Survey] Open File Report 87-2, 7 p.

Harris, R.E., 1989, Graphite in Wyoming: Geological Survey of Wyoming [Wyoming State Geological Survey] Open File Report 89-11, 11 p.

Harris, R.E., and King, J.K., 1986, Potash resources of Wyoming: Geological Survey of Wyoming [Wyoming State Geological Survey] Open File Report 86-23, 8 p., 1 fig.

Harris, R.E., and King, J.K., 1987, Columbium (Niobium) and Tantalum in Wyoming: Geological Survey of Wyoming [Wyoming State Geological Survey] Open File Report 87-6, 22 p.

Hausel, W.D., 1987, Geology and occurrence of critical strategic metals (chromium, cobalt, manganese, and platinum) in Wyoming: Geological Survey of Wyoming [Wyoming State Geological Survey] Open File Report 87-7, 34 p.

Hausel, W.D., 1989, The geology of Wyoming's precious metal lode and placer deposits: Geological Survey of Wyoming [Wyoming State Geological Survey] Bulletin 68, 248 p., 6 pls.

Hausel, W.D., 1990, Strategic mineral resources in Wyoming—Titanium: Geological Survey of Wyoming [Wyoming State Geological Survey] Open File Report 90-7, 18 p.

Hausel, W.D., 1997, Copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, and associated metal deposits of Wyoming: Wyoming State Geological Survey Bulletin 70, 229 p., 15 pls.

Houston, R.S., and Murphy, J.R., 1962, Titaniferous black sandstone deposits of Wyoming: Geological Survey of Wyoming [Wyoming State Geological Survey] Bulletin 49, 120 p., 15 pls.

Osterwald, F.W., Osterwald, D.B., Long, J.S., Jr., and Wilson, W.H., 1966, Mineral resources of Wyoming: Geological Survey of Wyoming [Wyoming State Geological Survey ] Bulletin 50, 287 p.

Sutherland, W.M., and Cola, E.C., 2015, Iron resources in Wyoming: Wyoming State Geological Survey Report of Investigations 67, 92 p.

Sutherland, W.M., and Cola, E.C., 2016, A comprehensive report on rare earth elements in Wyoming: Wyoming State Geological Survey Report of Investigations 71, 137 p.

Sutherland, W.M., Gregory, R.W., Carnes, J.D., and Worman, B.N., 2013, Rare earth elements in Wyoming: Wyoming State Geological Survey Report of Investigation 65, 82 p.

Sutherland, W.M., Stafford, J.E., Carroll, C.J., Gregory, R.W., and Kehoe, K.S., 2018, Mines and minerals map of Wyoming: Wyoming State Geological Survey, at http://wsgs.maps.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=af948a51f4954a81adeae8935440cd28.

Taboga, K.G., Sutherland, W.M., Gregory, R.W., Stafford, J.E., and Rodgers, J.R., 2015, Lithium resources in Wyoming: Wyoming State Geological Survey Report of Investigations 69, 25 p.

Wyoming State Geological Survey, 2019, Critical minerals in Wyoming Summary report: Wyoming State Geological Survey Summary Report, 2 p.

Additional Resources

U.S. Department of the Interior Final List of 35 Critical Minerals

USGS Open-File Report 2018-1021, Critical Mineral List Summary and Methodology

Executive Order 13817, Executive Office of the President

Love, J.D., Smith, L.E., Browne, D.G., and Carter, L.M., 2003, Vanadium deposits in the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation, Afton area, Lincoln County, western Wyoming: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1637, 28 p., 16 pls.

Contact:
Wayne Sutherland (307) 766-2286 Ext. 247